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Monday, July 18, 2011

The Mangyan Tribes of Mindoro

Mangyans tribes are ancient inhabitants of Mindoro Island. Mangyan is the generic name for the eight indigenous groups with their own tribal name, language and customs. Their population is estimated at 100,000  people in the whole Mindoro Island.

The Hanunuo Mangyans are located in the municipalities of Mansalay, Bulalacao, some parts of Bungabong in Oriental Mindoro and in Municipality of San Jose in Occidental Mindoro. The male wears "ba-ag" (loin cloth) and "balukas" shirt and the female  wears "ramit"(indigo-dyed short skirt) and lambung (blouse). They practice skillfully  the "swidden" kind of farming which is different from "kaingin" system that is more destructive to environment. They have syllabic writing system called Surat Mangyan which is considered as Indic in origin.

The Alangan Mangyans are located in the municipalities of Naujan, Baco, San Teodoro, Victoria in Oriental Mindoro and municipality of Sablayan in Occidental Mindoro. The "Alangan" name means one who lives along the rivers or valleys. The female wear a skirt called "lingeb" together with the g-string called "abayen" and the upper covering is called "ulango" made of buri palm. The male wears g-strings with fringes in front. They practice also swidden farming the same as Hanunuo Mangyans. 

The Tau-Buid Mangyans are located in the municipalities of Socorro, Pinamalayan, and Gloria in Occidental Mindoro. They are popular as pipe smokers. Male and female wears loin cloth.

The Bangon Mangyans are located in the municipalities of Bongabong, Bansud, Gloria and Bongabon River in Oriental Mindoro. This tribe has their own culture, language and writing system.

The Tadyawan Mangyans are located in the municipalities of Naujan, Victoria, Socorro, Pola, Gloria, Pinamalayan, and Bansud in. Female wears "paypay" for upper covering and "talapi" for lower covering. The male wear g-strings called "abay". They practice "kaingin" system for farming.

The Ratagnon Mangyans are located in municipality of Magsaysay in Occidental Mindoro.The name "Ratagnon" means mixture of Tagalog and Visayan people. Their language is similar to "Cuyunon" language, a visayan language in Cuyo Island in Palawan. The female wears a wrap-around cloth and g-string for male for lower covering. Female upper covering is made from woven nito or vine.

The Iraya Mangyans are located in Puerto Galera, San Teodoro, and Baco in oriental Mindoro. In Occidental Mindoro they are located in municipalities of Abra de Ilog, Paluan, Mamburao, and Sta. Cruz. The name "Iraya" means man or human being. They are described as having curly, deep wavy hair and dark skin but lighter than Negritos. The female usually wears blouse and skirt, while male wear g-string. They are skillful in nito weaving for making handicrafts.

The Buhid Mangyans are located in the municipalities of Roxas, Bansud, Bongabong and some parts of in Oriental Mindoro. In Occidental Mindoro, they are located in the municipalities of San Jose and Rizal. The name "Buhid" literally means mountain dwellers. They are known as pot makers where other tribes of Mindoro are buying cooking pots from them. The female wear "linagmon" (a woven black and white brassier) and "abol" (black and white skirt). The male wear a traditional g-strings.

At present, Mangyans live in public lands in five Mangyan reservations in forest zones in Mindoro. A total of 20 to 60 households are within a core settlement composed of 5 to 8 members. Their main source of livelihood is farming through swidden or kaingin system, a type of cultivation which practice "field rotation" after the soil is exhausted rather that the popular "crop rotation" practice by lowlanders. They also get income from handicrafts and charcoal making while some of them are hired in mining operations and from DENR as forest guard and seedling planters. Their formal education is considered very low which is about 2% only of their population due to their belief that education can be best achieve through experience and its against to their customs and traditions. Another reason is the economic and social reason aside from cultural, like they can't afford to send their kids to schools and they feel that their kids will not treated well in school by lowlanders. 

Some Tawbuid men waiting for a bus in Occident...Image via Wikipedia
Mangyan people
Mangyan ChildImage by ibarra_svd via Flickr
The Mangyan child from Mindoro
Mangyan children in traditional costume 2Image by mick62 via Flickr
Mangyan Children in Traditional Costume 
IMG_1222Image by jensm via Flickr
Mangyan boys
Mangyan VillageImage by The Dilly Lama via Flickr
Mangyan Village
Mangyan FamilyImage by jensm via Flickr
Mangyan Family
DSC_4974Image by trey.menefee via Flickr
Mangyan father and kids
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A Hanunuo Mangyan girl weaving a buri basket
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A Hanunuo Mangyan shows blacksmiting

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A Hanunuo Mangyan shows cloth weaving
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A Bangon Mangyans showing how to make kwako(pipe)
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An Alangan Mangyan shows rattan weaving
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Household items traditionally found in Hanunuo Mangyan home
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Bay-ong containers made of palm or buli
Bamboo letter opener
with ambahan  etchings
written in Surat Mangyan
     Kubing-A bamboo instrument
         played by blowing through the carved wood
and strumming at the pointed end 
Ayupit from dried palm leaves made
by Hanunuo Mangyan
  Ramit textile with Pakudos design
Nito cup made from nito vine woven around  a rattan frame
      Ramit textile with Minatahan design
 Mangyan's body cccessories 

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